Medium-sized tree to about 35 meters. Has distinctive fluted trunk when mature, bark is thick, reddish-brown beneath often becoming whitish on the surface. Adult foliage comprises many small dark green scales closely appressed to the branchlets, but not flattened. Juvenile foliage is more needle-like, and not appressed. Male cones up to about 3 mm long, yellow and knobbly arising on the tips of the branches. Female cones are also terminal, rosette-like at first, becoming a rounded brown cone with 8-14 scales when mature. Usually 10-20 small seeds per cone scale. Naturalized 1904. USDA Zone 7a: to -18 °C (0 °F)
Scarification: Soak in water, let stand in water for 24 hours.
Stratification: cold stratify for 30 days.
Germination: sow seed 1/16″ deep, tamp the soil, mulch the seedbed.
Other: seed can be treated with Captan (4 tablespoons/gallon of water) during stratification to prevent fungal problems.
Germination: Can take as long as 1-12 months.